Inspection And Testing To Ensure The Quality Of Finish Product In Construction Works

Top quality assurance in construction activities is obtained via the execution of Inspection and test plans (ITPs). ITPs are designed for each and every construction activity depending on the technical specs necessary for such activity.

The actual Objective of Inspection and Testing Plan

An Inspection and Test Strategy (ITP) is an essential component within a QA system within a construction project. It is a document that defines and records all inspection and testing needs of any certain construction activity or procedure. As an example, in a construction project it may be either a construction activity or perhaps a specific component of work or possibly a trade or possibly a production work.

Particularly, ITP defines:

The construction activities and related work practices, work items and materials to become inspected or tested,
Who is accountable for inspection and testing and at what stage and the frequency of inspection and testing must be carried out;
Hold and Witness Points (a point or stage beyond which work activity ought to not proceed with out the approval in the client or the clients representatives)
Applicable requirements, acceptance benchmarks and the records to be maintained;

The reason why an ITP is needed in Construction?

Typically the Inspection and Testing Plan (ITP) may be the principal document that essentially controls the top quality of all activities and operations in any construction project. ITPs must not just be accepted by all parties involved within the project but additionally must be introduced at the inception from the construction project.

The actual ITP should address the following:

Exactly what are the quality targets to become achieved in terms of technical and contract specifications (or conditions) of the construction project;
Who will likely be accountable for inspection and testing and their responsibilities in terms of the contract
Exactly what are techniques, procedures and any other instructions to become employed in the course of inspection and testing
Methods and frequency of inspections, testing and criteria of conformance
How can you amend or revise (or procedures) the ITP to suit the altering situations during the progress of the project?
How to conform to inspection check lists ready for every construction activity?

Who’s Responsible for ITP?

Typically the primary Contractor is accountable for preparation and implementation of ITP for any construction project. Preferably, the Contractor must ensure that his sub-contractors prepare the required inspection and testing strategy for the work activities and processes performed by them. Nevertheless, one ought to note that the general responsibility for ITP lies with all the principal contractor.

Actions Involved with verifying ITPs for a Construction Project/Contract

1.Study the contract documents and the technical specifications.
2.Prepare a list of queries related with missing data, any ambiguities or discrepancies associated with applicable requirements of supplies and workmanship.
3.Consult your customer or the clients representatives and make an effort to resolve the issues identified in item 2.
4.Identify the construction activities that require ITPs and checklists.
5.Identify the Hold and Witness Points as specified inside the contract document and by the client.
6.Evaluate the contract clauses that have considerable influence on top quality and workmanship specifications. Here, you’ll need to assess the consequence on the progress from the project owing to non-compliance or non-conformity of top quality on an activity. At this stage, it is crucial to include relevant data pertaining to tests, high quality standards when submitting ITP for Clients approval.
7.Finalize the checklists after reviewing it with all of the parties involved inside the relevant activities. The suggestions and also the inputs given by the knowledgeable staff (and lessons learned on previous/similar construction functions) are essential for identifying the problems that could cause costly rectification and delays.
8.Finalize the ITP in line using the conditions stipulated in contract documents. Similarly the ITP must basically complement the Top quality Management Program or Quality Management System (ISO9001) if already in location.
9.Timely submission of ITP for each and every earmarked activity to Client. If any clients observations and feedback have to be considered and amended the ITP accordingly
10.Ensure that proper awareness of the ITP among the personnel directly involved on each ITP. This means, proper training and awareness and involvement of workers from the beginning of preparation of ITP are a must.
11.Confirm the procedures required for reporting of Witness and Hold Points towards the relevant responsible individual.

Contents of ITP:

Preparation of ITP s should consider the following:

The actual nature and complexity from the work or the construction activity ;
Whether there’s access for inspection and testing;
What will be the resulting consequences in case of failure:- expense of remedial or rectification work involved, impact on the progress, accessibility and how easily rectification could possibly be carried out, any disruption to adjacent buildings or structures, progressive damage to other components of the construction, safety of workers or public and availability of sufficient resources.
The frequency of inspection and testing will have to become decided in accordance with all the circumstances of contract as well as the kind of inspection and testing necessary for the activity. In essence, certain inspection and testing will likely be carried out making use of appropriate frequency and sampling or statistical strategies. This entails selection of suitable representative sampling for huge operates. Sampling size and frequency might be increases or decreased according to the evidence on conformity throughout the progress of construction activities.
Record keeping or documentary evidence is essential to conform that the quality of completed activity or the product meets the specifications from the contract. Hence, the records could be in the type of checklists, test reports, certificates of compliance or conformity, approvals and survey and statistical information.
Reference to applicable specifications, codes of practices and standards. For example, reference ought to be created to: Contract document, construction drawings, design calculations, technical specifications or procedures, authorized samples, regulatory requirements, and Australian & International standards, manufacturers specifications, and acceptance criteria.
The necessary inspection and test procedures for the activity. In order to have consistent and reliable test results, the procedures for inspection and testing and recording have to be clearly defined inside the ITP. For example:- identification of test areas, the batch number, frequency of sampling, the method on which the samples to be taken, method of testing, the qualification of personnel involved in testing, correct calibration of equipment and measuring equipment, the documentation and recording have to become covered under ITP procedures.
Whether the top management from the contractor has appointed key quality and testing representatives to carry out the inspection and testing as required by the contract.
Whether adequate resources such as manpower, laboratories, field measuring and testing equipment are provided.
Whether the ITPs are updated regularly in order to accommodate changes on clients or project requirements. In essence, the validity from the ITPs in relation towards the current needs.
Whether the contractor has the procedures (or plan) in location to monitoring, measurement, and analysis necessary to conform that the work is carried according to required specification, workmanship and high quality.

The details provided above reveal that inspection and testing is a important factor on any construction contract that assures quality finish item.