Land Banking A Great Investment For Long Term Capital Growth

Land banking, over the longer term, has shown better average gains than either shares or property, and with less downside risk, with an average UK growth of 920% in 20 years!

Once the preserve of rich, today, even smaller, in the know investors are taking advantage of this opportunity to make substantial capital gains.

Land Banking – What is it? Land banking simply involves the acquisition of land, which does not enjoy planning consent, in advance of expanding urbanization.

With the granting of planning consent, the price of an open space parcel, not yet subject to urban development pressures, normally rises in value.

Land Banking in the UK In 2004 alone, agricultural land in the UK appreciated in value between 16% and 30%, depending upon its geographical location.

In fact, over the past 20 years, the AVERAGE increase in UK Land has been a staggering 920%! In many instances, investors who have bought land in the right place at the right time have exceeded these average gains.

Not only has land risen in value dramatically, it has risen in a smoother upward path with less downside volatility than either stocks or property.

UK Demand Exceeding Supply The UK is one of the most densely populated countries in Europe and has a rising population driven by a huge influx of migrants from overseas.

Two facts will illustrate the potential of land banking in the UK:

There is a need for up to 3,500,000 new homes over the next 15 years, rising to 4,400,000 new homes over the next 20 years.

Over the last 30 years, the demand for new homes has increased by 30%. In the same period, house-building rates have dropped by over 50%.

Supply must catch up with demand, and buying land in the UK therefore offers investors a great opportunity to make substantial capital gains.

Location is the Key! Under developed land, such as Greenbelt, agricultural and forestry, is cheaper than land that currently enjoys planning consent. The way to make big capital gains in land banking, involves buying land in specific areas in the hope of future development.

Pre-planning purchase of green belt, agricultural and forestry land is nothing new. Astute investors have been doing it for years.

Investors simply need to study specific areas for the likelihood of future planning permission being granted, which will lead to an increase in the value of the plot purchased.

How to Make Big Land Banking Capital Gains Every developer knows that each town and city must grow outward, and the land most available is agricultural, greenbelt and forestry.

Land without planning permission which is subsequently included in a local authority’s unitary development plan (UDP), will potentially benefit from a significant increase in value.

With the granting of a change of use, a site’s value can increase substantially. However, the change of use category granted, i.e. residential, commercial recreational etc, will ultimately dictate the change in value of the plot.

Land Banking Risks Any investor considering land banking needs to give careful consideration to site selection, and purchase sites which are within the path of progress and future urbanization, but also have a high probability of future development.

Land Banking is a long-term investment, as resale durations and amounts are variable.

Taking Advantage of the Land Banking Opportunity There are many specialist companies catering for international investors wishing to own UK land. An investment in land can be cheap, as many developers buy plots, divide them, and sell them in smaller parcels.

SEO Manchester Beneficial For Online Marketing Industry

Marketing through the internet is extremely effective in reach to a large group of audience from different corners of the world. However, this approach is highly competitive as a result of which millions of users are opting for the online marketing approach. This has led to infinite numbers of websites highlighting same topic or depicting similar themes. It makes getting lost in the vast crowd of websites becomes easier. But with the presence of seo manchester service providers, scenarios look a lot better. A website’s performance depends largely on the SEO methods applied on it before getting listed on the search directories. SEO, or search engine optimization, is the approach to build a website’s reputation in the most positive way while being placed on the search engines.

The SEO process comprises of different techniques, like article submission, linking to top rated sites, socializing the site, checking on the correct set of keyword usage, and most importantly, taking necessary initiative to find out about originality of the content. SEO professionals need to be dedicated and hard-working. It is said that professionals of SEO in Manchester have a fixed time to enter the office but no fixed time to go out. The work pressure is immense. However, only those who love to accept these work pressures can able to achieve the highest level of success in this industry.

seo companies in Manchester always offer the maximum benefits in terms of website optimization process. Clients from all over the UK and other parts of Europe rely heavily on the SEO service providers of Manchester. They have a fast and expert approach to rely upon. The companies feature teams comprising of young talents with experienced professionals to take the search engine optimization procedures to an altogether different height. The whole approach ensures that client websites are met with the very best of outcomes in terms of traffic accessibility and search engine ranking.

Vacuum sewer – automotive lockout tools – car door unlock

Basic elements Collection chambers and vacuum valve units Vacuum sewer lines Central vacuum station Vacuum technology is based on differential air pressure. Rotary vane vacuum pumps generate an operation pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar at the vacuum station, which is also the only element of the vacuum sewerage system that must be supplied with electricity. Interface valves that are installed inside the collection chambers work pneumatically. Any sewage flows by means of gravity into each house collection sump. After a certain fill level inside this sump is reached, the interface valve will open. The impulse to open the valve is usually transferred by a pneumatically (pneumatic pressure created by fill level) controlled controller unit. No electricity is needed to open or close the valve. The according energy is provided by the vacuum itself. While the valve is open, the resulting differential pressure between atmosphere and vacuum becomes the driving force and transports the wastewater towards the vacuum station. Besides these collection chambers, no other manholes, neither for changes in direction, nor for inspection or connection of branch lines, are necessary. High flow rates keep the system free of any blockages or sedimentation. Vacuum sewer systems are considered to be free of ex- and infiltration which allows the usage even in water protection areas. For this reason, vacuum sewer lines may even be laid in the same trench as potable water lines (depending on local guidelines). The system supplier should certify his product to be used in that way. To achieve the condition of an infiltration-free system and therefore allowing to reduce the waste water amounts that need to be treated, water tight (PE material or similar) collection chambers should be used. Valve and collection sump (waste water) preferably should be physically separated (different chambers) in order to protect service personal against direct contact with waste water and to ensure longer life cycles (waste water is considered to be corrosive). In order to ensure reliable transport, the vacuum sewer line is laid in a saw-tooth (length-) profile, which will be referred to more precisely afterwards. The whole vacuum sewers are filled with air at a pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar. The most important aspect for a reliable operation is the air-to-liquid ratio. When a system is well designed, the sewers contain only very small amounts of sewage. The air-to-liquid ratio is usually maintained by “intelligent” controller units or valves that adjust their opening times according to the pressure in the system. Considering that the vacuum idea relies on external energy for the transport of fluids, sewers can be laid in flat terrain and up to certain limits may also be counter-sloped. The saw-tooth profile keeps sewer lines shallow, lifts minimise trench depth (approx. 1.0 1.2 m). In this depth, expensive trenching, as it is the case for gravity sewers with the necessity to install continuously falling slopes of at least 0.5 – 1.0%, is avoided. Lifting stations are not required. Once arrived in the vacuum collection tank at the vacuum station, the wastewater is pumped to the discharge point, which could be a gravity sewer or the treatment station directly. As the dwell time of the watewater inside the system is very short and the wastewater is continuously mixed with air, the sewage is kept fresh and any fouling inside the system is avoided (less H2S). Advantages closed, pneumatically controlled system with a central vacuum station. Electrical energy is only needed at this central station no sedimentation due to self-cleansing high velocities spooling and maintenance of the sewer lines is not necessary manholes are not required Usually only a single vacuum pump station is required rather than multiple stations found in gravity and low pressure networks. This frees up land , reduces energy costs and reduces operational costs. investment costs can be reduced up to 50% due to simple trenching at shallow depths, close to surface flexibility of piping, obstacles (as open channels) can be over- or underpassed reduced installation time small diameter sewer pipes of HDPE, PVC materials; savings of material costs aeration of sewage, less development of H2S, with its dangers for workers, inhabitants, as well as corrosion of the pipes may be avoided; sewage is kept fresh no odours along the closed vacuum sewers no infiltration, less hydraulic load at treatment station and discharge sewers absolutely no leakages (vacuum avoids exfiltration) sewers may be laid in the same trench with other mains, also with potable water or storm-water, as well as in water protection areas Lower cost to maintain in the long term due to shallow trenching and easy identification of problems In combination of vacuum toilets it creates concentrated waste streams, which makes it feasible to use different waste water treatment techniques, like anaerobic treatment Limitations vacuum systems are not capable of transporting sewage over very long distances, but can pump long distances from the vacuum station to the next STP or main gravity sewer. vacuum sewerage systems are only capable for the collection of wastewater within a separated system (not for the collection of storm-water) the lines can only reach up to 3-4 km laid in flat area (restrictions of the system due to headlosses (3-4.5 m) (friction and static)) systems should be designed with help of an experienced manufacturer (concepts are usually free of charge) external energy is required at a central point for collecting sewage odours close to the vacuum station can occur, a biofilter may be necessary Integrity of the pipe joints is paramount Application Fields Vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more the preferred system in the case of particular circumstances: Especially difficult situations as ribbon, peripheral settlements on flat terrain with high specific conduit lengths of longer than 4 metres per inhabitant are predestined for the application of vacuum sewerage systems. In the case of sparse population density the influence of the costs for the collection chambers and vacuum stations are less important in comparison to the costs of long and deep sewers on gravity. Missing incline of the ground, unfavourable soil (rocky or swampy grounds) and high groundwater table (with the necessity of dewatering trenches) lead to enormous investment costs in regards to gravity sewerage systems. On the contrary vacuum sewers that are small in diameter can be laid close to the surface in small trenches. Vacuum sewers can pass through water protection areas and areas with sensitive high ground water tables, because there is no danger of spoiling groundwater resources (vacuum sewers have a high leak tightness due to their material; moreover the vacuum itself does not allow exfiltration). Vacuum systems has also been applied to collect toxic wastewater. Vacuum systems are seen as a priority in many environmentally sensitive areas such as the Couran Cove Eco Resort close to the Barrier Reef in Australia. In seasonal settlements (recreation areas, camping sites etc.) with conventional gravity sewer systems, sedimentation problems can easily occur as automatic spooling from the daily waste water does not take place. High flow velocities within vacuum sewers prevent such sedimentation problems. The Formula 1 race tracks in Shanghai and Abu Dhabi are using a vacuum sewer system for that reason. Even in old narrow and historical villages, the use of vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more important due to a fast (traffic, tourism), cost-effective and flexible installation. Good examples and references can be found in France, such as the village of Flavigny, in Oman at the township of Khasab and Al Seeb. Lack of water in many countries and drastic water savings measures have led to difficulties with aging gravity networks with solids blocking in the pipes. Neither the lack of water nor solids affect resp. occur in vacuum sewer systems. That’s why this technology becomes interesting for such kind of applications. As PE or PVC pipes are used, no solids from ageing pipes will enter the system. All other solid are kept out at the collection chambers. vacuum sewer systems don’t have any manholes to dump big solids into the system. Project Examples The county of Sarasota, Florida and the city of Carnation, Washington are developing a county wide collection system and is incorporating vacuum sewers. In Germany, several hundred well-working systems are operating since the 1970. Especially in the Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman), vacuum sewer systems become more and more important due to easy and fast installation along with water saving effects and easiness of maintenance. The world’s most famous vacuum sewer project is currently the Palm Island Jumeirah, located at the coast of Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Approx. 23.000 people will be connected to this vacuum sewer system with only 1 central vacuum station. The vacuum station is considered to be the biggest vacuum station in the world. The biggest installation in Europe (several vacuum stations) can be found in Gerasdorf (near Vienna), Austria, where many benefits of a vacuum sewer system helped to overcome difficult conditions in this mountainous area. Good examples can be found on the Maldives, the post-tsunami WATSAN project UNICEF – UN, where on several islands vacuum sewer systems have been the best option. Several other project, mainly for resorts, have already been realized on the Maldives. Vacuum sewer systems are not only used in the Europe or Middle East but even in low developed third world countries. Several vacuum sewer systems have been already built or are currently under construction in Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Namibia) for townships and rural areas where the benefit of fast construction time, cost saving trenching and high flexibility have come to full effect. Australia has been one of the largest users of vacuum sewer systems due to the low installation and operational costs. The largest system to-date has been at the Tea Gardens development in New South Wales, which will ultimately handle over 4.500 houses. The Water Corporation in Western Australia is considered the largest single owner of vacuum systems in the world with over 30 schemes now under their operational control. The United Kingdom is well served by Vacuum Sewerage Systems, the region most extensively served are the low lying fenlands of the East of England. High water tables (in some cases less than 1metre below the surface) and poor ground conditions have meant that the local Water Company Anglian Water has embraced the use of Vacuum Sewerage, taking advantage of the system’s requirement for small bore sewer pipes laid in shallow trenches, dramatically reducing the requirement for pumping stations as would be required by conventional gravity sewer systems. The largest Vacuum Sewerage scheme in this region serves the villages of Outwell and Upwell, 4 vacuum collection stations serve some 1500 homes in this agglomeration. On initial costings for a conventional gravity sewer to serve the area, previously served by domestic septic settlement tanks the site would have required the installation of 32 pumping stations. Using a vacuum sewer system, this number of pumping stations was reduced to 4 vacuum stations. Other companies in the UK such as Southern water operate vacuum sewer systems, too. Lately, vacuum sewer systems become popular for industrial and commercial projects as well, where only little domestic waste water occurs and where the flexibility of a vacuum sewer system allows easy coordination with usually plenty of other utilities in the ground. Good examples can be found again in the Middle East, such as some small industrial areas in the Emirate of Ras al Khaimah or the newly built Qatalum Aluminium Plant in Qatar, the world’s largest primary aluminium plant. The well known eco-city of Masdar, U.A.E., uses a vacuum sewer system as well to separate grey from black water. Installation and construction The following section covers some basic information regarding the installation of vacuum sewer system. This section is not complete and should only give a basic overview. Based on long term experience, only HDPE pipes should be used for vacuum sewer system pipe works. The recommended pipe classification is SDR11. Preferences should be given to electro fusion joints rather than butt welding. In general, butt welding shall only be allowed for pipe diameters bigger or equal than 150mm as the internal beads from butt welding methods will reduce the diameter especially for 90mm pipes significantly which can cause blockages inside the pipes. It is most important not to use any 90 connection within the pipe work. This refers to any main or branch lines connections as well as to horizontal direction changes. Only wye-fittings and 45 bends may be used. Using 90 connection will lead to blockages within the system and may create water hammers with temporarily pressure drops affecting the equipment. It is furthermore very important to follow the pipe profiles which should be given by the system supplier. A minimum requirement is a constant slope of 0.2% within the so called saw tooth profile. Upwards slopes and deviations from the given pipe profiles will lead to water sags causing temporarily blockages and pressure drops resp. additional head losses. In worst case, this can lead to a failure of the system. Especially the connection line from the collection pit to the next branch or main line needs to maintain a certain slope as otherwise water sags may cut off the valves from the vacuum inside the pipe system causing malfunction of the valves. Special attention has to be given to the civil works related to the pipe work installation. Over-compaction or damages to the pipes by excavators may result in significant problems during operation. Even if the pipe withstands the pressure tests during construction and after backfilling, squeezed pipes or pipe full of concrete or other construction debris will lead to blockages and water sags during operation. Although international guidelines give clear recommendations for gate valves (every 400-500m within main lines and for branch lines longer than 200-250m), all important side branches should be equipped with a gate valves. This will allow much faster pressure tests and leak detection during construction and will allow emergency measures if problems occur. Ruling technical guidelines and norms EN 1091 DWA-A 116-1 (also known as ATV-DVWK-A 116, Part 1) WEF (Water Environment Federation) Alternative Sewer Systems (Second Edition -2008) WSA 07 (Australian Code) AS 4310 – 2004 (Australian Vacuum Interface Valve Standard) External links Airvac, International (U.S.A.) Roevac, International (Germany) Iseki, UK Quavac, Netherlands Flovac, International Vacuum sewerage systems on Wikipedia References ^ PCS: Vacuum Sewer Construction ^ http://www.ci.carnation.wa.us/sewer/factsheet-vacsystem.pdf Categories: Sewerage infrastructure

Male Fitness Modeling Working Out in the Industry

Male Fitness Modeling Working Out in the Industry

Male modeling is becoming an increasingly competitive business as attitudes change and more and more men are looking to break into the industry. One of the most important niche fields of the male modeling industry that is gaining ground and that you can get into is the area of fitness models an area very different from male modeling in other areas.

When most people think about the male modeling industry, they think about high-end fashions, about clothing, and about women. In talking about male models, people usually think you mean skinny, slightly androgynous men who wear the latest fashions out of Europe, however for male fitness models, its an entirely different genre.

Male modeling agencies that specialize in fitness models are looking for an entirely different body type than the guys who walk the runway this slice of the modeling industry wants to see not just you, not just your handsome face, but your muscles.

Modeling jobs in the fitness modeling industry don’t always go to the guy who’s the buffest, or the one who has the best abs, but if you’re looking to get your start in the modeling industry, there are a few things that you need to understand. First, it’s important to realize that modeling gigs in this part of the industry are much more concerned about the body as a whole than their counterparts in the mainstream fashion modeling industry. This means that getting a tight, toned body with great abs and good muscle symmetry is key huge pecs and skinny arms won’t land you a job, and neither will a flat stomach that doesnt have defined abs. Your face is important too you can’t neglect it in favor of your body, but it isn’t the only thing that the photographer is going to care about. Male models in this industry are paid to show off their muscles often in shorts or underwear and they need to be a total body package.

If you’re looking to get a start in the fitness modeling industry, you need to think about what kind of company you want to work for, have what it takes and if you’re up for the challenge. Body building is a huge part of the fitness side of male modeling, and while you don’t need to be Mr. Universe, you will need to take the time to eat right and focus on your muscle development and definition.

If you’re up to the challenge, stop by BLEEP models and send us some shots of yourself and take the first step of your male modeling career.

Experts Predict The Development Of The Automotive Industry In Europe Will Encounter A Bottleneck Pe

Recently, Germany “report to westdeutsche” has reported industry experts Ferdinand Duden Hove forecast on the development of the automotive industry in Europe. This professor of the University of Duisburg – Essen was pointed out, in 2013, European car manufacturers will face the most serious challenges in the past few decades, and the trend of decline in car sales in Europe only may be able to slow down after 2014.

According to Ferdinand Duden Hove forecast, for the European automotive industry, 2013 will be the most difficult year in decades. He pointed out that in Europe, especially in the automotive industry in southern Europe, is facing the most severe test since World War II. In the past year, car sales in France and Spain suffered huge losses

The University of Duisburg – Essen CAR Automation Research Center director said: “The euro area long-term economic slowdown of the European car market will face a more difficult situation in 2013.” 2013 and 2014 will be the bottleneck, and downward trend may stop after 2014. Duden Hough added: “so far have not been able to detect the signs of recovery since the economic crisis.”

Russia and India will overtake Germany as the auto market
Under Duden Hough forecast, in 2013, Europe car sales will less 3.5 million than the same period in 2005. This figure is equivalent to the annual sales of 12 plants. Duden Hough also speculated that most of the region will face a situation of overcapacity in the future. Whats more, he also believes that the government of the southern European countries will be funded aid the car manufacturers.

Duden Hove further pointed out that the balance of power of the global automotive industry will change. Although the United States as a sales market leading position will not change, but the German car market has gradually lost its importance. To Duden Hough estimates, “From 2015 onwards, Germany will no longer be the top five of the world’s largest auto market.” Russia and India are likely to overtake Germany before that.

Spain’s car industry assistance projects
While German Automobile Industry Association (VDA) submitted to the 2012 sales statistics on last Thursday, the automobile industry in France and Spain also announced its sales in 2012 this black year. French car manufacturers (CCFA) announced on Wednesday, in the past year, there is only nearly 19,000 new cars registeredwhich is the lowest figure in 15 years. Compared to the same period in 2011, new car sales fell by nearly 14%.

According to the Automobile AssociationANFACStatistics, Spain car annual sales in 2012 has a decrease of 13.4% over the same period last year. In order to promote sales, the Spanish producers and the government have drafted an aid proposal in November 2012. Until March of this year, if the Spanish car owners to scrap his more than 12 years old car and purchase the more environmentally friendly cars, they will get a bonus of 2000 euros.