An Introduction of Financial Management Book of SMU MBA

A well known university SMU is most famous for health and medical. Now, it is famous for distance education also. In the recent days, it has been known for distance MBA very promptly. The university provides own written books for its MBA education. There is an introduction of financial management book.

There are 15 chapters in the book. The book deals the management problems and financial resources in business firms. Financial management is known as basic managerial actions relating to the three major decision areas such as investment, financing and dividends and working capital management.

The book comprises 15 units:

1.Financial Management – the chapter explains the meaning, scope and examines the goal of corporate financial management. 2.Financial Planning – the chapter explains the meaning and need of financial planning. 3.Time Value of Money – the chapter introduces about time value of money and discounting of cashflows. 4.Valuation of Bonds and Shares – in this chapter writer explains about the valuations of bound’s principles and equity shares. 5.Cost of Capital – this unit describes the concept of cost of capital. 6.Leverage – it is one of the most important chapters in the financial management which deals financial and combined leverage. 7.Capital Structure – in this chapter many theories of capital structure has been introduced. 8.Capital Budgeting – the chapter explains the meaning, significance of capital budgeting decisions and about various investments of appraisal techniques. 9.Risk Analysis in Capital Budgeting – there has been introduced risk in capital budgeting decisions. 10.Capital Rationing – it examines the steps which involved in capital rationing process. 11.Working Capital Management – there are various concepts of working capital and factors that influence the working capital requirements in a firm. 12.Cash Management – this is the most important component of working capital. 13.Inventory Management – the unit describes about various forms of inventory management. 14.Receivables Management – cost of maintaining receivables, formulation of credit policy and determination of an optimal credit period has been discussed in the chapter. 15.Dividend Decision – basically, the chapter deals about payment of shareholders.

These are the brief description of financial management book of SMU MBA. A student can find more about these chapters in the book of Financial Management.

Gian Brett is an expert writer of various subjects. He has written many articles on Financial Statement Analysis also.

Prosthodontic Management of Ectodermal Dysplasia with Iliac bone graft and endosseou

Illica crest bone graft Ectodermal DysplasiaProsthodontic Management of Ectodermal Dysplasia with Iliac bone graft and endosseous implants : A case report

Dr Neeraj Nagpal , Dr K L Gupta, Dr Ruchi Nagpal, Dr Dhruv Sharma

ABSTRACT : Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects several ectodermal structures . Persons suffering from ectodermal dysplasia may have various manifestations of the disease that differ in severity and may or may not involve teeth, skin, nails , seat and sebaceous glands. The most common form of ectodermal dysplasia syndrome is hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and is usually inherited as an X- linked recessive trait .Female carriers have a variable degree of clinical manifestations . This case report discusses prosthodontic management of an 18 year old female suffering from ectodermal dysplasia . Clinical management consisted of iliac crest autogenous bone graft to augment premaxilla . Later 2 endosseous implants placed in premaxilla and 2 endosseous implants placed in parasymphysis region of the mandible. After Osseointegration of the implants a four unit fixed partial denture placed in maxilla and an implant supported over denture fabricated for mandibular arch. Keywords : Ectodermal dysplasia , Christ Siemens syndrome ,Hypohidrosis , Hypotrichosis , Hypodontia . Introduction : Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder manifested as dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin primarily nail, teeth skin and occasionally dysplasia of mesoderm derived tissues . As defined by Freire – Maia the nosologic group of Ectodermal dysplasia is any syndrome that exhibits at least 2 of the features ,that is ,abnormal hair (trichodysplasia ) , abnormal dentition , abnormal nails (onchodysplasia ) and abnormal or missing seat glands (dyshidrosis ) [1]. More than 150 different variants of Ectodermal dysplasia have been described [2]. Hidrotic and hypohidrotic are the 2 forms of Ectodermal dysplasia . In both types teeth and hair are similarly affected , but manifestations in nails and s eat glands and the hereditary pattern tend to differ [3] . The X- linked hypohidrotic form or Christ Siemens syndrome is characterized by clinical triad of hypohidrosis , hypotrichosis and hypodontia . Hidrotic form is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and affects teeth , hair , and nails but usually spares the s eat glands .Prosthodontic rehabilitation is of paramount importance in patients suffering from Ectodermal dysplasia for functional , physiologic and psychologic reasons [1]. Case Report : An 18 year old female named Reena reported with multiple missing teeth since birth. Her parents reported in difficulty in getting her married due to poor look resulting from several congenitally missing teeth. After clinical and radiographic examination the case diagnosed as Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia . Family history of Ectodermal dysplasia as negative . The young lady as moderately built with hypotrichosis , scarce eyebrows and scarce eyelashes , dry anhidrotic skin , depressed nasal bridge , thin lips ,dark pigmented skin around periorbital area and nose , facial height as reduced ( fig . 1 ) She reported absence of eat and that her lips and tongue remain dry in all climates . There was no relevant effect on the nails . Intraoral examination revealed presence of partially erupted four teeth in the region of 13, 16, 23 and 26 ( fig 2, 3 ). The edentulous ridge as atrophic with decreased height . the palate as shallow , oral mucosa as normal and dry due to less saliva , the tongue as relatively large . OPG X ray depicted poorly developed premaxilla and completely edentulous mandible .( fig 4 ) Surgical and Prosthodontic Management Initially the impacted canine in the mandibular arch as surgically removed ( seen in the OPG fig 1 ). The ridge augumentation of the premaxilla was done with the help of an autogenious bone graft taken from the patients iliac crest( fig 2 ). Hence, the residual alveolar ridge made suitable for the implant placement .Three implants were placed in the mandibular arch in C,B and D positions , followed by the fabrication of an implant supported mandibular overdenture .

In the maxillary arch ridge the ridge augumentation was done with the help of a iliac crest graft Henceforth , a tooth supported fixed prosthesis i.r.t 24,25,26 as fabricated . Followed by the placement of 2 implants in the premaxillary segment .After three months of osseointegration , a four unit implant supported fixed prosthesis replacing 11 ,12 ,21 and 22 as fabricated .

An iliac crest bone graft as harvested ( fig 3 ) and stabilized to augment the premaxilla ( fig 5 ) .The iliac crest is preferentially selected because it is an autogenous cancellous bone graft and is easily harvested and has predictable acceptance and biointegration . After 2 months of bone augmentation 2 endosseous implants were placed in the augmented premaxilla( fig 6 ). Osseointegration of the implants as allowed for four months , followed by fabrication of four unit fixed partial denture prosthesis in 11, 12, 21and 22 regions. Impression as made using elastomeric impression material by putty ash technique .Abutment analogues and implant analogues were placed in the impression . The impression as poured in die stone by split cast technique. Later three endosseous double stage implants were placed in the mandibular arch ( fig 7 ). After four months of Osseointegration , the implants were uncovered , the abutments ere attached and a customized impression as made , after border molding , in rubber base impression material. The mandibular arch rehabilitated with implant supported overdenture ( fig 8 ) due to economical constraints and ease of rehabilitation .The denture as fabricated from heat cured P.M.M.A. (Trevalon powder and liquid , Dentsply ) .The intaglio surface of the denture as relieved and the female housings of the implant attached using autopolymerising acrylic resin P.M.M.A. (Dentsply ) There as marked improvement in speech and the facial esthetics . Discussion The treatment for a patient of Ectodermal dysplasia varies and generally depends on the persons age , dental agenesis , degree of malformation of teeth , the growth and development of the stomatognathic system of the patient and patient’s motivation . According to Nowak [1] treating the ectodermal dysplasia patient requires the clinician to be knowledgeable in growth and development , behavioral management , techniques in fabrication of prosthesis , the ability to motivate the patient in the use of the prosthesis and the long term follow -up for the modification and/ or replacement of the prosthesis . Prosthodontic treatment for ectodermal dysplasia includes removable partial denture or complete denture , overdenture and implants .These approaches may be used either individually or in combination to provide optimal results . Early prosthodontic treatment is generally recommended from the age of 5 years . This early restoration of facial appearance is essential for normal psychological development . [1] . Rapid growth in early life dictates the use of removable partial or complete dentures for these patients. When full growth is reached, treatment planning may include dental implants to retain, support, and stabilize prostheses. Osseointegrated implants offer an alternative that will provide major improvement in the long-term prognosis for oral rehabilitation. In treatment planning for implant dentistry in these patients, extra care must be taken to determine whether adequate bone level to receive the implants is present and whether there is adequate vertical dimension of bone to support the implants. Diminished bone volume may limit the success of implants, especially in the maxilla . The problems associated with complete denture placement in an ectodermal dysplasia case are mainly associated with periodic adjustment due to growth changes and difficulties in achieving good retention and stability [5] .Difficulties in achieving adequate resistance to lateral and anteroposterior displacement of the denture in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia patient are due to dryness of oral mucosa and underdevelopment of maxillary tuberosities and alveolar ridges .[6] If few teeth are present in the mouth, overdentures are the most desirable treatment options [1,3].Overdentures help in preservation of the alveolar bone . Due to decreased number of abutments conventional fixed prosthodontic treatment needs to be altered . Dental implants may be placed in specific areas of the alveolar ridge to gain support for the FPD . For adult patients with ectodermal dysplasia , dental implants are the treatment of choice because growth has stabilized and implants may be used to support , retain and stabilize the prosthesis [1]. In this case of an 21 year old female and the premaxilla being poorly developed . Hence, an iliac crest autogenous bone graft used to augment the premaxilla followed by placement of 2 endosseous implants . The implants were later rehabilitated with a four unit porcelain fused to metal fixed partial denture . The treatment not only improved the patient- s functional and esthetic status (fig 7 ) but also improved the psychological wellbeing and the social life. Conclusion The study discusses the management of a young lady with Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia having multiple missing teeth and atrophic partially edentulous maxilla and edentulous mandibular ridge . A prosthodontic rehabilitation consisted of bone augmentation of premaxilla with iliac crest autogenous bone graft . Subsequently , 2 endosseous implants were placed to support a four unit fixed partial denture . An implant supported overdenture fabricated for completely edentulous mandibular arch . Hence , physical , physiological and psychological status of the patient as optimally restored . References 1.Pigno MA , Blackman RB ,Cronin RJ ,Cavazos E (1996 ) Prosthodontic management of ectodermal dysplasia :a review of literature . J Prosthet Dent 2.Pinheiro M ,Freire-Maia N (1994 ) Ectodermal dysplasias : a clinical classification and a casual review . Am J Med Genet 53 : 153- 162 3.Bonilla ED , Guerra L , Luna O (1997 ) Overdenture prosthesis for oral rehabilitation of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia : a case report . Quintessence Int 28 (10): 657-661 Tarjan I , Gabrir K , Rozsa N (2005 ) Early prosthetic treatment of patient with ectodermal dysplasia : a clinical report J Prosthetic Dent 93 : 419-424 REFRENCES

1.Hickey A, Vergo JR TJ: Prosthetic treatments for patients with ectodermal dysplasia. J Prosthet Dent 2001;86:364- 368. 2.Guckes AD, Scurria MS, King TS, et al: Prospective clinical trial of dental implants in persons with ectodermal dysplasia. J Prosthet Dent 2002;88:21-25. 3.Dhanrajani PJ, Jiffry AO: Management of ectodermal dysplasia: a literature review. Dent Update 1998;25:73-75 4.NaBadalung DP: Prosthodontic rehabilitation of an anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia patient: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:499-502 5.Pigno MA, Blackman RB, Cronin RJ, et al: Prosthodontic management of ectodermal dysplasia: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 1996;76:541-545 6.Blattner RJ: Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. J Pediatr 1968;73:444-447 7.Davarpanah M, Moon JW, Yang LR, et al: Dental implants in the oral rehabilitation of a teenager with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: report of a case. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:252-258 8.Bolender CL, Law DB, Austin LB: Prosthodontic treatment of ectodermal dysplasia. A case report. J Prosthet Dent 1964;14:317-325 9.Snawder KD: Considerations in dental treatment of children with ectodermal dysplasia. J Am Dent Assoc 1976;93:1177-1179 10.Guckes AD, Brahim JS, McCarthy GR, et al: Using endosseous implants for patients with ectodermal dysplasia. J Am Dent Assoc 1991;122:59-62 4. Sha RM (1990 ) Prosthetic management of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with anadontia : case report . Aust Dent J 35 : 113-166

The Importance of Having an Efficient Event Management Process

In the present economic environment, its fundamental that event managers work as efficiently as possible. Running lucrative events is a time consuming and complicated process. It can take many years of training and on the job experience for an event manager to become extremely effective at what they do.

One of the troubles event management faces is the huge number of activities and procedures that are involved in setting up and running events. Having the capability to multi-task and being well organised are traits that event managers need to develop and perfect as they gain experience in the field.

The benefits of working efficiency are basic:

Time savings

Cost savings

Improved event performance

Drilling down into these areas we can see the particulars of how and where the efficiency gains can be made:

Saves Time:

Its important that the event manager has clear and efficient procedures they adhere to when running events. Establishing processes that other people can keep to also means that other team members can aid or take over the management of an event with ease. Team members are able to comprehend instantly what stage of planning the event is at; cutting down on meetings and training sessions.

Many event managers will generate and revise their processes with each event; learning from their experiences to make the process of managing each event more effective and efficient. Having a set process that is written down means the events can be planned and managed far easier – important areas are never missed out and realistic timescales can be easily produced. Having dedicated processes saves time because event managers do not need to generate procedures from scratch for each event. They can reproduce each event process again and again, building on in and improving it with each event.

Being efficient in the event planning process also helps with event analysis. This involves analysing the performance of suppliers – knowing who has been used previously to provide goods and services and having details of the relationship can help analyse if this association is working at maximum efficiency. Its imperative to understand if suppliers standards are falling, and this can only be done if the event manager is running efficiently and monitoring the relationship with each event. It is massively valuable for event mangers to be able to employ the same suppliers over and over again – sourcing different suppliers is an especially time consuming process. Additionally having suppliers that let you down can be a huge drain on time as event managers try to resolve the issue at the last minute. So understanding and staying on top of existing supplier relationships is a fundamental part of efficient event management.

Post event, its important for event mangers to be able to swiftly and efficiently get management information on that event to analyse the success of that event; was there an increase in delegate attendance, did delegates rate the event well, did you get a good return on investment (ROI) etc. These are critical event metrics that need to be analysed quickly and efficiently. A frequent issue event managers have is that they are so busy arrangement numerous events, that they do not have time for this crucial event analysis stage. However, it is only by analysing events that you can help to improve the performance of future events.

Saves Costs

The common idiom time is money is very applicable in event management. Having an event manager who is efficient at their job, who understands and follows best practice event management processes and who has excellent relationships with effective suppliers is a crucial part of making a high and fast ROI. Bad event managers can cost an organisation huge quantities of money due to their poor efficiency and organisation.

Working with suppliers and building good quality relationships can also save money – the better the relationship, the more probable that supplier discounts will be involved. Running efficient events also means paying your suppliers on time – a critical part of gaining supplier discounts and bonuses.

An ineffective event manager will cost an organisation through the errors they make. Doubling up on orders, missing crucial parts of the process and other mistakes can be costly in terms of the time it takes to resolve, but also through being forced to obtain items at the last minute.

Improved Event Performance

Being able to efficiently run events also has an impact on the performance of the event. Delegates will have an better experience if the event runs smoothly and without mistakes. Being efficient ensures that delegates have an pleasurable and mistake free journey – from the point of booking, to payment, registration on the day, experiencing the event and providing post event feedback.

Events with efficiency concerns are likely to be poorly managed, with |mistakes and errors causing delegates to have unsatisfactory experiences. Ensuring that you provide the best possible experience for delegates is very important for the success of future events.

Increasing delegate attendance is something many organisations battle with, and if an organisation has issues over its reputation, due to their inefficiency, that will have a knock on consequence on future event registrations. A important part of profitable events is building up reputation in the industry and creating a long list of loyal, repeat purchase delegates.

Finally, being an efficient event manager also means that they are able to organise more than one event at a time. For companies that are dependent solely around event organisation, or for companies that simply happen to host numerous events, this is a critical part of the event management process. Event managers must be able to effectively organise the planning and running of multiple events and this can only be done if they are running to best practice, efficient event processes.

Improving Event Efficiency

Event managers can help to improve the efficiency of their working practices by making use of event management software. Event software is able to take best practice event processes and automate and manage them from one central platform. Taking away inefficient spreadsheets from the process and working on a software solution designed specifically for event management has demonstrated to have huge cost and time saving benefits.

Event management software solutions are able to manage all areas of event planning from:

– Website Integration

– Online Registration

– Event Communication




– Badge Production

– Resource Management

– Management of Financials

– Event Reporting and Analysis

With the event management industry being hit with increasing costs and lower delegate attendance, its vital that companies organising events fight back by being as efficient as possible and continually improving their processes. It is the companies that deal with efficiency problems head on, and utilise the use of technology who will make sure their events are profitable now and in the future.

For more information on event management software solutions, talk to evocos. In the past year alone evocos event software solution has created over 7000 events, managed roughly 75,000 delegates and has taken over 50,000 registrations online.

Incorporating built-in reporting and analysis resources as well as social media, email marketing, website integration, registration, online payment, badge production, resource management and event surveys, evocos is one of the most all-inclusive event management software solutions on the market today.

The evocos event management software team ensures you are able to seamlessly manage your events; gaining vast cost and efficiency benefits.

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How management students can enhance their career opportunities by learning MIS

Globally corporates look for ways to transform their inputs in profits and strives to elicit maximum productivity from their employees. In such an instance, aspirants holding management information system degree will be at the forefront and will enjoy their sustenance for long. Aspirants who are well-versed and proficiently understand how organizations, technology and computers operate will be at the vanguard, with several opportunities to grow and develop. But what is MIS and how it augments management skills, read on below to get a comprehensive insight.

What Is MIS?

Ideally Management Information System deals with study of technology, organization, and people and most importantly the relation between them. In is people centric field with due emphasis on technology and services and performs several tasks. Each and every business of modern day collects processes and stores data. In fact everyone who is the part of business, right from the person who supplies the raw material, the one who pays the bill, the one who employees everyone makes use of information system to keep track of records and smoothly operate in the business segments. MIS plays a crucial role in here by improvising the efficiency of the operations and facilitating ease of information maintenance.

How Management Students can augment their skills?

Management Information system helps in data management. This data is ideally used by different professionals within the organization and outside it. But to spruce up skills in MIS, aspirants need to take up professional training. MIS is fun but those who wish to gain mastery over the subject, indepth understanding of the fundamentals become must.

MIS training and certification is essential. Aspirants, who have a degree, undoubtedly enjoy an edge over others. Usually there is misconception that MIS is only about programming, which actually not true Programming is a small part of the subject. It may be used in some founding concepts or at the time of implementation and use. Larger part of MIS involves team work, data analysis, leadership, project management and underlining business theories. MIS training institutes in Noida can help you conceptualize and groom skills in best possible way. Technical and theoretical sessions are conducted by industry experts. MIS grooms problem solving skills and have ability to manage time and resources. Improvisation on Microsoft Excel VBA Course and ensures smart development