Birmingham And The Industrial Revolution

Birmingham was one of the most significant cities in the development of the industrial revolution. How did it achieve its position of prominence in early industry.

Birmingham is located in Britain’s largest royal hunting ground, just outside the Forest of Arden. Birmingham town had a very interesting Saxon name. By dissecting the name, Birmingham, we know that during the Saxon’s times a man named Berm and his family – or “ing” – kept their home – or “ham” there.

Domesday Book had the first official mention of Birmingham. Birmingham Manor was a small place, as there were only 9 houses, may be around 50 people, other than the associates of the Lord of the Manor. The boundary of the land having the manor in it is mentioned to be having 4 hides. A hide is supposed to be approximately 120 acres of land. So, there were 480 acres, and not the whole land would be the arable land stated.

Peter de Bermingham, Lord of the Manor of Berm, was granted a charter in 1166 to hold a market every week on Thursday, and given permission to levy tolls on goods and produce sold there. The privilege of holding a fair each year for four days, starting on Holy Thursday, was secured in 1251 for the Manor of Birmingham. Such institutions flourished since Birmingham was on the River Rea at the only decent crossing in the district; therefore, it was a natural centre where track ways (no proper tracks existed) came together. Traders and craftsmen started settling in Birmingham to be close to the market. Since Birmingham was a manor, not a town, no irksome restrictions had to be observed by smiths, craftsmen, tanners, or gunsmiths in the Middle Ages. They could display and sell goods unhindered, enjoying the same privileges held by those who traveled to the increasingly flourishing town for trading. This liberty encouraged those of enterprise and ambition in the neighborhood to go to Birmingham, where they could work with no disturbances and compete with anyone. Thus, the town thrived and grew in the 14th and 15th centuries.

In Tudor times both banks of the Rea were filled with water mills and the workmen of Digbeth, Deritend and the nearby boroughs of Rea used the water wheels to turn the early machines. However, still more important is the fact that Birmingham was the only region with good supply of drinkable water, sufficient enough for the ever growing population.

The increasing number of patents granted to Birmingham tradesmen and inventors in the early eighteenth century shows the strong spirit of inquiry and initiative which was spreading throughout the town, and the great improvement of tools and processes. For instance, a certain John Taylor took out a patent for cast-iron hollow-ware in 1779. Henry Clay, one of John Baskervilles apprentices, patented papier-mache in 1772, while two brothers named Wyatt patented a machine for cutting screws, work which had hitherto been done by hand. Another townsman, named Harrison, made a steel pen for Dr. Priestley. Josiah Mason later started one of the largest factories in the world for the manufacture of pens. There were many more inventions about this time, so you will understand why Birmingham became so busy and progressive.

Strong Industry Connections at AICA Education

AICA Educations strong industry connections have enabled students to be given unique opportunities whilst studying, which can lead to them to finding their ideal jobs when they graduate.

Diploma of Graphic Design student, Stayc Sinclair, has gained invaluable industry experience through a range of freelance work arranged by AICA Education. “Whilst studying Ive worked on design jobs for various organisations, such as designing logos, websites and brochures. The experience has made me more confident to enter the workforce at the completion of my Diploma.”

AICA Educations Diploma of Graphic Design provides a program of study focused on industry centred outcomes. Students create a professional portfolio which can help them secure their ideal job in the Graphic Design industry.

Stacys portfolio has been instrumental in kick-starting her career, as she has recently been offered a highly sought after internship position at Warner Brothers.

“AICA arranged a job interview for me at Warner Brothers. After looking at my portfolio I was offered an internship with Warner Brothers for when I graduate.”

“I chose AICA to study my Graphic Design Diploma because of their up to date software packages, such as 3D Studio Max and Dreamweaver. It was the only college I could find with all of the programs I needed as well as both Mac and PC facilities.”

AICA Educations Diploma of Graphic Design teaches students to use a 3D package and Dreamweaver design software programs, which are quite new to Australia and are in high demand in the workplace. With the graphic design industry moving towards multimedia and online media, learning to create in 3D is imperative. AICA Education graduates trained in these programs will have a major competitive advantage in the industry.

Students are also trained to develop their theoretical, technical and practical skills in design programs Adobe InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator, Acrobat and Flash.

CEO and AICA Education College Head, Ruth Grosser says that AICAs point of difference is their small class sizes which allow for increased interaction and one-on-one attention from teachers.

“Our teachers are all leading, industry professionals all with vast experience in many areas of the creative arts,” said Mrs Grosser. “At AICA Education we are passionate about ensuring our students have successful careers when they graduate. We ensure that we give all our students great training, small class sizes and the motivation to succeed.”

From Certificate to Diploma level, AICA Education offers courses in Visual Arts, Graphic Design, Photography, Graphic Pre-Press, Fist Aid and Workplace Training and Assessment. These courses prepare students for a variety of cutting-edge career opportunities in areas such as advertising, design, promotion, publishing, printing, marketing, packaging, photography, multimedia, consultancy, small business and management.

Process Fans For Industry

To reduce greenhouse gases and produce a useful byproduct, many countries, states, counties, and cities are replacing landfills with industrial composting systems. One of the most common methods for large scale operations is Aerated Static Pile or Active Aeration composting. ASP refers to any of a number of systems used to biodegrade organic material without physical manipulation during primary composting. Our fans play a key role in these systems by forcing air through an array of perforated piping placed in and around the compost material to provide air circulation for controlled aeration. This allows system operators to maintain the desired temperature, moisture, and oxygen levels within the piles during decomposition.

Fans play an important role in a number of industrial processes, all of which require the right performance to maintain optimal operating conditions. Tenderall Fan extensive engineering and manufacturing capacities have allowed Buffalo Blower to offer a complete line of fans for industrial applications, from standard pressure blowers to heavy duty custom engineered mechanical draft fans. Tenderall Fans equipment delivers the air for heating & cooling, ventilation, dust collection, separation, conveying, laboratory fume exhaust, gas tight, explosion proof, fired heater, and boiler systems. To meet specific requirements we offer many accessories and options including specialty materials, coatings, custom safety guards, spark resistant construction, explosion proof motors, and high temperature designs. Whether for a pulp and paper mill, plastic manufacturing operation, or subsurface mine, our quality products will provide the reliability needed for your industrial process.

In addition to the extensive fan design and manufacturing experience, Buffalo Blower offers the most comprehensive line of fans that meet the stringent requirements associated with the control devices used in the air pollution control market. Depending on the specific application, we can design fans with a variety of options with heavy-duty construction features such as nominal leak-tight construction with specific sealing features, materials of construction specific to the contaminants and temperatures of the air stream, and spark resistant construction. Our products play a key role in the wide array of processes and associated ancillaries used with control devices for the air pollution control industry.

Tenderall Fan works closely with a large number of OEMs that manufacture Car Wash systems, and offers a complete fans as well as a variety of parts including wheels, cones, drives and inlet plates. Dryer fans are typically built with 10 HP and 15 HP motors in 50 / 60 HZ ratings. Nominal 18″ diameter backwardly-inclined steel wheels with 10-blade construction are generally used to minimize objectionable “pure” tones that can be irritating to the human ear. Buffalo Blower also offers airfoil aluminum wheels using all welded extruded blades when a customer prefers aluminum rather than steel wheels.

Dryer fans are commonly mounted on the sides and top of arches located at the exit section of a typical car wash installation and are generally constructed from a high density plastic material to prevent corrosion. The special projected mounting of the inlet cone to the housing offers higher outlet velocities, which allows for faster drying times. Buffalo Blower also makes special plastic nozzles to obtain yet higher velocity air for optimum drying.

The chemical industry demands the highest standard of engineering, design and quality control for their equipment. Commercial grade products are unacceptable and specific attention to detail is regularly required to ensure proper function and durability. Tenderall Fan has the resources to comply with ASME, ISO, ATEX directive and other industry standards for handling toxic, corrosive, and unstable materials. These fans are used for a range of applications including laboratory and fume exhaust, dust collection, general ventilation, high pressure low volume, special metal/FRP and gas tight processes.

Tenderall Fan manufactures a full line of fans that are designed to handle the material laden airstreams found in a number of coal processing applications. Many of the fans used in these applications require additional features such as abrasion resistant liners, spark resistant construction, explosion proof motors, high temperature alloys, specialty coatings, and custom safety guards. In addition to these features, thr fans are available in a variety of arrangements and configurations to provide maximum product flexibility for ease of installation and maintenance, including a complete range of fans for general HVAC plant ventilation and human comfort.

Aerated static piles offer process control for rapid biodegradation, and work well for facilities processing wet materials and large volumes of feedstocks. Advantages of this composting method include the ability to maintain the proper moisture and oxygen levels for the microbial populations to operate at peak efficiency to reduce pathogens while preventing excess heat, which can crash the system. Aerobic compost systems also facilitate the use of biofilters for treating process air to remove particulates and mitigate odors prior to venting.

For additional information please refer to http://www.tenderall.com

Oleg Tchetchel
Process Ventilation Equipment Designer

Tenderall Fan Co.
http://www.tenderall.com/blower/index.html
http://www.tenderall.com/ventilator/index.html

Sunglass Stores Industry Market Research Now Available From Ibisworld

The Sunglasses Stores Industry has already begun its recovery from the economic storm. According to IBISWorld, the nations largest publisher of industry research, improving consumer sentiment and favourable demographics have helped bolster sales, benefiting companies like Luxottica Group and National Vision Inc. Revenue in the industry is expected to grow over the next five years which will be supported by higher projected household incomes and an improved sense of financial stability. For this reason, industry research firm IBISWorld has added a report on the Sunglasses Stores Industry to its growing Apparel & Accessories Stores report collection

Sales of sunglasses during the past five years have been particularly sensitive to drops in consumer confidence, as sunglasses are more of an optional purchase than prescription eye glasses. However, IBISWorld forecasts the sunglasses stores industry to rebound supported by higher projected household incomes and an improved sense of financial stability over the next five years.

Growth in the sunglasses stores industry will be driven by increasing awareness of the useful benefits and the style appeal of these accessories. Prior to the recession of 2008 and 2009, strong economic growth and easy access to credit enabled consumers to purchase sunglasses as a fashion accessory. The sunglasses market is typically distinguished by price and function, and classified into premium and value segments. According to IBISWorld analyst, Nikoleta Panteva, the premium segment has grown faster than the value segment in the five years to 2011. The fashion aspect also contributes to shorter replacement cycles and volatile sales, as styles and consumers’ financial capacity to spend change frequently.

To provide convenience for consumers, as well as to create brand awareness, sunglass stores aim to be located in high shopping traffic areas or near ophthalmic specialists. The industry remains fragmented through small retail chains and independent locations. Italian firm Luxottica Group and National Vision Inc. are the industry’s largest operators. Luxottica is a vertically integrated network of manufacturing plants, distribution operations and retail outlets. In the US Luxottica Group operates mainly through its Sunglass Hut and Oakley O locations.

Breadth and depth of product selection is also an important consideration. An appropriate product mix should tailor to match the demographic composition of the store’s market. Stores located in regions or states with a relatively higher income earning clientele should stock branded as well as private label frames, lenses, accessories and sunglasses. Additionally, stores are increasingly focusing on integrating services, such as eye exams, frame fitting, and purchasing advice to adapt to consumers’ demands for one-stop shopping.

Pressure Transducer Uses In The Oil And Gas Industry

The world wide oil and gas industry uses many types of pressure transducer for measurement and control in processes, drilling and down hole tools. With the need to find oil in less accessible areas the systems used in exploration, drilling and production becomes ever more complex and the use of pressure transducer products is increasing.

A few applications for pressure transducer sensors are:

Drilling Tools
Various types of pressure transducer are used in downhole tools to monitor hydraulic pressure, and pipeline oil pressure. Often a high pressure transducer is required, with a high operating temperature range due to the extreme environment. The Omni series 10 and series 8 pressure transducer models offer ranges up to 1000 bar with operating temperatures up to 150 degrees C.

Wellheads
Wellhead assemblies and Christmas tree use a range of pressure transducer sensors to monitor wellhead pressure. Due to the hazardous area the pressure transducer has to be of intrinsically safe or explosion proof design. A pressure transducer used in this application also needs to be rugged and weatherproof. The Omni series 23EXD and 23IS pressure transducer types meet both of these requirements.

Intelligent Pigs
Subsea pipe lines are tested on a regular basis with an intelligent pig. The pig may be fitted with several pressure transducer types to monitor pipeline pressure, and hydraulic pressure. Also a differential pressure transducer may be used to measure the difference in pressure between the front and back of the pig. As these devices are usually battery powered it is important to select a pressure transducer with low power consumption. The Omni series 10 pressure transducer only draws around 1mA and is ideal for these applications.

Core Analysis
In core analysis an oil sample may be forced at high pressure through a section of rock core. A pressure transducer in this application needs to provide high accuracy measurement up to 10,000 PSI and be constructed of either hastelloy or monel to avoid corrosion of the diaphragm. The Omni series 23 and 25 pressure transducer meets this
requirement.

Subsea Hydraulic Manifolds
Subsea hydraulic packs are used for various control applications in offshore oil production. Subsea hydraulic packs may use up to 10 pressure transducer units. The pressure transducer has to be made to the smallest design, and be able to work with high external case pressures. In this instance the pressure transducer may have the external housing removed with the bare PCB exposed to the environment to reduce the profile, with oil filling used to stop any seawater ingress.

Drilling Mud Systems
It is often a requirement to use a pressure transducer in mud flow lines. In these applications a pressure transducer with a flush diaphragm is required. This is because with a normal pressure transducer the pressure port is only 3 mm diameter, and is prone to clogging with mud particles. The Omni series 25 pressure transducer have a G1/2 or G3/4 flush diaphragm and can be supplied in EXD or IS format for hazardous area use.

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