The Impact Of Inventions On The Printing Industry.

Copyright 2006 Smarket Limited

Printing is not something one may think of often, but it does impact our lives everyday. From the morning newspaper to church on Sundays, printing is important to our society. Without printing we wouldnt have books, papers, magazines or many other information tools. To truly understand printing one must look at the machines, processes and technology that has shaped its history.

The construction of machines have taken printing from hand cranked to high power. The first papermaking machine which developed rolls of paper was made in London in 1803. In 1846 Richard March Hoe made a rotary press that arranged printing plates on a cylinder, pressing them onto the paper. In 1866 a machine was invented for the purpose of folding newspapers. In 1884 the typesetting machine, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler in Baltamore, made printing easy. All of these inventions started methods that are still used today.

The introduction of certain processes also helped to revolutionize the printing industry. Steam power first came to be used in printing in 1810. This replaced the old hand operations of the past, making the whole process faster. In 1798, Alois Senefelder invented the process of Lithography. It involved ink applied to a plate and then transferred to a roller that then rolled the images onto paper. This was the basis for processes still used today.

Technology has impacted every industry, but perhaps has really improved the printing industry. The introduction of computers make setting up type and tone much easier. Laser printing and digital printing have sent the process to new heights, allowing printers to do more than ever. High definition abilities make todays printed material of the highest quality ever seen.

With the combination of new advances in machinery, processes and technology the printing industry has grown and changed. It is an important part of daily life and with its evolution through history has become even better.

Whether To Sign A Non-disclosure Agreement

Steven Sutton is the owner of the Law Offices of Steven R. Sutton and a commercial litigator in New York City. According to Sutton, for employers who are trying to protect their businesses, having new employees sign non-disclosure agreements is a great way to ensure that company information and trade secrets dont get out in the event of an employees departure.

Employment issues are a key part of my firms business, and I have acted as a commercial litigator for New York clients on both sides of this type of case. We have had employers coming to use and asking to have non-disclosure agreements drafted as a way to tie their employees in to the company, and we have also had employees come to us to ask about what the details in the agreement they signed really mean.

On the Employers End
On one hand, for business owners, having their employees sign an airtight non-disclosure or non-compete agreement can be very important in keeping company secrets confidential. These contracts are particularly important when dealing with senior-level management, and any other employees who are privy to very sensitive or confidential company information. Companies that require employees to sign non-disclosure agreements can prohibit these employees from sharing any information that a person outside of the company would not ordinarily be aware of, and having these provisions in place can be key from the employers point of view.

Especially for companies in the health and fitness industries, having these agreements in place is the only way to protect secret client lists and keep sensitive information out of the hands of competing organizations. When a company hires a new personal trainer, it would never want him or her to tell people who the companys famous celebrity clients are. And in addition to that, the company would need to prevent that new trainer from using its client list if he or she were to create a new personal training business in the future.

Besides client lists, in the case of health and fitness companies, non-disclose agreements can also prevent employees from taking their companys techniques or training methods if they leave in the future. In fact, provisions in these agreements can be written to prevent employees from exposing any and all confidential trade secrets to outsiders once employment with the company has been terminated.

From the Employees Perspective
On the other hand, these agreements can take a much different turn for the employees themselves. Rather than protecting them, many employees feel like the contracts they are being asked to sign could actually be prohibiting them from seeking employment with other companies in the future. I have worked with people who said they didnt know what they were getting into when they signed a non-disclosure agreement, and later found out that the agreement they signed essentially prevented them from earning a living in the future.

Very often, when people sign these non-compete contracts, they are not sure whether it does or does not apply to potential future positions. Unfortunately, the contracts that are signed during employment are valid once that employment is over, and certain provisions can in fact prevent people from working in the same field or industry for a period of time once their employment with the company has been terminated. While every contract is different, some non-compete agreements specify that employees may not work in any industry within a certain geographic area once their employment has ended. From the employees standpoint, these types of contracts can be litigated and negotiated. In New York, hiring a commercial litigator to argue the case is a common next step after receiving notice of termination.

What a Lawyer Can Help
Any employees who feel that the contracts they signed were unfair should certainly consult with a commercial litigator for help. If the client feels that the non-compete contract he signed should not be valid, the lawyer would attempt to get rid of any temporary restraining orders that prevent the client from earning a living or feeding his family. By arguing that the non-compete provisions of the agreement should be interpreted in a different way, the attorney will help a lot.

In New York especially, these types of agreements are not always valid, depending on the facts of the case. The only way to determine whether a particular non-disclosure agreement is, in fact, valid is to have a professional attorney give it a close look. Our law firm has actually litigated some of these issues pretty extensively in the Supreme Court in New York, and we have had quite a bit of success in advising employees of what they can and cannot do.

This article is for informational purposes only. You should not rely on this article as a legal opinion on any specific facts or circumstances, and you should not act upon this information without seeking professional counsel. Publication of this article and your receipt of this article does not create an attorney-client relationship.

Tennis Clothes – A Revolution In Style

Tennis clothes have changed drastically in style, fabric, and color over the last 100 years. The first lawn tennis players in England wore formal attire when playing. Standard tennis clothes for women were full-length dresses. Men wore long pants and formal, long sleeve shirts. The tennis clothes of both men and women were entirely white in color. Contrast this formal style with the tennis clothes worn by the tennis players of today. Modern tennis players favor synthetic fabrics, more athletic clothing styles, and a greater variety of colors.

The evolution of tennis clothes has mirrored the changes in everyday fashion. For example, male tennis players in the 1970’s and 1980’s favored short, tight-fitting shorts and traditional polo shirts. In the late 1990’s and 2000’s, male tennis players began to wear larger, looser shorts and more casual shirts. In addition, female tennis players of the 1970’s and 1980’s favored traditional tennis clothes with an updated style. Popular clothing included shortened tennis skirts and dresses. Today’s women tennis players wear a variety of tennis clothes, ranging from tennis skirts and dresses to shorts and t-shirts. While tennis players still wear white at more traditional clubs (e.g. Wimbledon), there is a much larger variety of colors in modern tennis clothes.

Another factor contributing to the evolution of tennis clothes is the increased athleticism in the modern game. Tennis is now a high intensity sport, requiring tremendous physical effort and exertion. Tennis players must be able to run, cut, jump, and twist all while executing precise tennis strokes to hit a ball often moving at high speeds. Consequently, comfort is a major concern of players. Modern tennis players prefer tennis clothes that are lightweight, fit well, repel moisture, and are generally comfortable. Tennis clothes that keep the body cool and dry can help players counteract the physical toll that playing tennis, especially in hot weather, can exact.

Advances in clothing technology have also contributed to the evolution of tennis clothes. For years, cotton was the fabric of choice for tennis clothes. In the last few years, however, many tennis apparel makers have introduced garments made of new, synthetic fibers. Tennis clothes made of these synthetic fibers help remove sweat from the skin and clothing by wicking moisture away from the body. Examples of these clothing technologies are Adidas’s ClimaCool brand and Nike’s Dri-FIT. Most professional tennis players and many recreational tennis players now wear tennis clothes made with these new technologies because they keep them cooler and drier than traditional tennis wear.

In conclusion, tennis clothes have seen many changes over the years. While tennis clothes maintain some of their formality and traditional style, modern tennis players value comfort and individual style over tradition. Increased athleticism, advances in technology, and changes in general fashion have greatly affected the tennis clothing industry. In addition, breaking from their traditional roots, tennis clothes have become a medium for personal expression of individual style and important pieces of equipment in an increasingly physical sport.

Chiropractic Marketing Teacher Appreciation Programs

Well, its back to school for almost everyone by now and this means theres a small window of opportunity for you to market to all the teachers in your local school district.

You may be wondering, “What opportunity might that be, Chris?”

Good question!!

Let me explain. I have just the right chiropractic marketing idea to help you out. Lets make sure you finish 2010 strong and quite possibly help you, help more people and make more money this last quarter than you did in the previous three quarters of the year combined!! For some of youthis is a strong possibility (especially if you really struggled most of this year).

For the rest of you, this program Im about to share with you could easily add an additional $10K-15K per month to your income!! How sweet is that?

So, what chiropractic marketing strategy has a “small window of opportunity” and can easily make you and additional $10K-$15K per month additional income?

(Drum Roll Please)

Teacher Appreciation Programs! Hosting a Teacher Appreciation Program in your local schools can literally turn your practice into a round-the-clock money making machine and allow you to make a huge difference in the health and well-being of the teachers in your school district.

You see, throughout the months of April and May this year we approached our local school districts and got permission to visit all the schools in our area. We talked with the different Principles at each school about hosting a Teacher Appreciation Program, where we would “pamper” the teachers for the day.

It was a hit!!! a real Home Run!! ..as a matter of fact, it was such a success that we talked with the schools again last week about providing the same program this year and we already have 5 schools scheduledall within the next 30 days!

You see, originally back in April when we first approached the schools and explained the details of the program to the different Principles they all just “had to get us scheduled, immediately.” I have never seen such open arms! It was Great!!! and it was really easy.

So we decided to approach them again this yearespecially since they loved us so much already.

We scheduled 17 New Patients at our first Teacher Appreciation Program last April, of which 15 got started with care!! Our second Teacher Appreciation Program netted even better results! We came into contact with 25 teachers, 21 scheduled appointments and 20 of those teachers started care in our office!!!

I just wish we would have thought of this idea soonerwe could have cleaned house all year long. lol

You see, most teachers have great insurance, so the chances of them starting care extremely high!!! Yes, you can expect high conversions rates when you host a program like this. plus the “quality” of the new patients is superb!

Just to give you an idea of what this translates too, Ill share the exact numbers with you.

How To Write A Business Plan Essential Elements Of A Good Business Plan

In order to write an effective business plan, you will need to start by covering the basics. State clearly on a cover sheet the name of your business, the address of the business and the principles that govern the business. These elements, however, are only part of what you need to include in your business plan. There are a few more essential elements to include in your business plan.

Executive Summary

The executive summary is the abstract of your business plan. It is summarises all the information you give in the body of the plan and serves to introduce potential investors to your company. Mention your company background, mission statement, goals, management overview, capital requirements, market opportunity and competitors in no more than three or four pages. Make sure your executive summary is persuasive enough to convince investors about the viability and potential of the business.

Business Overview

The business overview provides more details about your business and why the business was formed. It expounds on your business mission, strategy, model and existing strategic relationships. Clearly explain how your business was formed, the costs associated with running the business, legal structures of the business and any intellectual property you may own. You may also cover issues relating to administration, management, accounting and security in this section of your plan.

Business Offering

The business offering section details why you are in business and what you are selling. State whether you are selling products or services. If you are selling products, shed more light on whether you are the manufacturer, retailer or distributor. Talk about your manufacturing process, inventory processes and availability of materials, if you are the product manufacture. If your business offers services, describe those services in detail. Also, provide information on product or service lines you expect to venture into in future.

Implementation and Strategy

This section provides details of your business strategies. It highlights your sales forecast, products or services launch dates and expected customer or web visitors statistics. Investors will be keen to read through this section to learn about your dates and deadlines. Lay out these details in a table called Milestones for easier information consumption.

Marketing Plan and Analysis

Detail your marketing plans in this section. Provide information about your market analysis, customer service, sales and public relations. Showcase your business vision and highlight the key points that will make your business successful. Validate your points with market research and customer and or industry trends. If you are a smaller entrepreneurial company and lack capacity to conduct in depth market research, validate your points with testimonials from existing customers.

Management Team

Explain the backgrounds of the managers and executives in your business in this section. This is important because investors will be interested in evaluating the risks associated with your business before they invest. Generally, the experience of management teams significantly affects business risks. The more experienced the management team, the lower the risk involved.

Financial Projections

Finally, provide a clear quantitative interpretation and projection of all the information you included in the different sections of your plan. This information should ideally come after all the other sections. Include your cash flow statement for the coming two to three years, balance sheet and projected profit and loss statements in your financial projections.

Remember, a good business plan is never completely finished. Review, revise and build upon your plan from time to time to keep it accurate and up to date.